Useful tools provided by the STL include containers as the collections of objects (such as vectors and lists), iterators that provide array-like access to containers, and algorithms that perform operations such as searching and sorting. Encapsulation is the hiding of information to ensure that data structures and operators are used as intended and to make the usage model more obvious to the developer. C++ provides the ability to define classes and functions as its primary encapsulation mechanisms.

In C++ implementations, this is commonly done using virtual function tables. If the object type is known, this may be bypassed by prepending a fully qualified class name before the function call, but in general calls to virtual functions are resolved at run time. Multiple inheritance is a C++ feature allowing a class to be derived from more than one base class; this allows for more elaborate inheritance relationships. For example, a “Flying Cat” class can inherit from both “Cat” and “Flying Mammal”. An interface as in C# and Java can be defined in C++ as a class containing only pure virtual functions, often known as an abstract base class or “ABC”.


In Hanyu Pinyin, the standard romanization of Mandarin Chinese, the letter represents an aspirated version of this sound, /t͡sh/. There are also compilers, libraries, and operating system level mechanisms for performing actions that are not a standard part of C, such as bounds checking for arrays, detection of buffer overflow, serialization, dynamic memory tracking, and automatic garbage collection. The next line calls (diverts execution to) a function named printf, which in this case is supplied from a system library. In this call, the printf function is passed (provided with) a single argument, the address of the first character in the string literal “hello, world\n”. The \n is an escape sequence that C translates to a newline character, which on output signifies the end of the current line. The return value of the printf function is of type int, but it is silently discarded since it is not used.

The memory address of the first member must be the same as the address of structure itself. A function may directly return a structure, although this is often not efficient at run-time. The header (cinttypes in C++) provides features that enhance the functionality of the types defined in the header.

Related languages

In Fijian, ⟨c⟩ stands for a voiced dental fricative /ð/, while in Somali it has the value of /ʕ/. A number of tools have been developed to help C programmers find and fix statements with undefined behavior or possibly erroneous expressions, with greater rigor than that provided by the compiler. In 2008, the C Standards Committee published a technical report extending the C language[27] to address these issues by providing a common standard for all implementations to adhere to.

The phoneme originated in Vulgar Latin from the palatalization of the plosives /t/ and /k/ in some conditions. Spanish has not used the symbol since an orthographic reform in the 18th century (which replaced ç with the now-devoiced z), but it was adopted for writing other languages. Overloadable operators are also an essential part of many advanced C++ programming techniques, such as smart pointers. Overloading an operator does not change the precedence of calculations involving c# development outsourcing the operator, nor does it change the number of operands that the operator uses (any operand may however be ignored by the operator, though it will be evaluated prior to execution). Overloaded “&&” and “||” operators lose their short-circuit evaluation property. As a phonetic symbol, lowercase ⟨c⟩ is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal plosive, and capital ⟨C⟩ is the X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal fricative.

Switch selects a case to be executed based on the value of an integer expression. Different from many other languages, control-flow will fall through to the next case unless terminated by a break. Many of these had already been implemented as extensions in several C compilers. C89 is supported by current C compilers, and most modern C code is based on it.

Categories of data types

In such a case, a common solution is to create a clone() (or similar) virtual function that creates and returns a copy of the derived class when called. First, “static initialization” is performed, and only after all static initialization is performed, “dynamic initialization” is performed. In static initialization, all objects are first initialized with zeros; after that, all objects that have a constant initialization phase are initialized with the constant expression (i.e. variables initialized with a literal or constexpr).

Relations to other languages

Within a class, members can be declared as either public, protected, or private to explicitly enforce encapsulation. A private member is accessible only to functions that are members of that class and to functions and classes explicitly granted access permission by the class (“friends”). A protected member is accessible to members of classes that inherit from the class in addition to the class itself and any friends. The memory layout of a structure is a language implementation issue for each platform, with a few restrictions.

While C does not include certain features found in other languages (such as object orientation and garbage collection), these can be implemented or emulated, often through the use of external libraries (e.g., the GLib Object System or the Boehm garbage collector). A unified type system implies that all types, including primitives such as integers, are subclasses of the System.Object class. Unlike C++, C# does not support multiple inheritance, although a class can implement any number of “interfaces” (fully abstract classes). This was a design decision by the language’s lead architect to avoid complications and to simplify architectural requirements throughout CLI. The only implicit conversions by default are those that are considered safe, such as widening of integers. This is enforced at compile-time, during JIT, and, in some cases, at runtime.

The program prints “hello, world” to the standard output, which is usually a terminal or screen display. Additional multi-byte encoded characters may be used in string literals, but they are not entirely portable. The latest C standard (C11) allows multi-national Unicode characters to be embedded portably within C source text by using \uXXXX or \UXXXXXXXX encoding (where the X denotes a hexadecimal character), although this feature is not yet widely implemented. During the late 1970s and 1980s, versions of C were implemented for a wide variety of mainframe computers, minicomputers, and microcomputers, including the IBM PC, as its popularity began to increase significantly. The palatal approximant can in many cases be considered the semivocalic equivalent of the voiceless variant of the close front unrounded vowel [i̥]. The sound is essentially an English ⟨y⟩ (as in year) pronounced without vibration of the vocal cords.

Instead, he created a cut-down version of the recently developed systems programming language called BCPL. Instances of value types neither have referential identity nor referential comparison semantics. Equality and inequality comparisons for value types compare the actual data values within the instances, unless the corresponding operators are overloaded.

Stroustrup found that Simula had features that were very helpful for large software development, but the language was too slow for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development. When Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing. Remembering his PhD experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features.[22] C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast, portable and widely used. As well as C and Simula’s influences, other languages also influenced this new language, including ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML.

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